Personnel Expenses and Employee Numbers Personnel expenses for continuing operations schließen Continuing operations Sales and earnings reporting for continuing operations pertains only to business operations that are expected to remain in the company’s portfolio for the foreseeable future; opposite of discontinued operations. rose in 2017 by €69 million to €9,528 million (2016: €9,459 million). The change was mainly due to higher expenses in connection with compensation adjustments, which were partially offset by lower employee bonuses. (XLS:) Download Personnel Expenses 2016 2017 € million € million 2016 figures restated Salaries 7,602 7,567 Social expenses and expenses for pensions and other benefits 1,857 1,961 of which for defined contribution pension plans 491 488 of which for defined benefit and other pension plans 389 445 Total 9,459 9,528 The personnel expenses shown here do not contain the interest portion of the allocation to personnel-related provisions – mainly for pensions and other post-employment benefits – which is included in the financial result under other financial expenses (Note “Financial Result”). The average numbers of employees, classified by corporate function, were as shown in the table below: (XLS:) Download Employees 2016 2017 2016 figures restated Production 40,397 39,298 Marketing and distribution 37,270 37,147 Research and development 13,999 13,958 General administration 8,322 9,359 Total 99,988 99,762 Apprentices 1,998 1,918 The number of employees on either permanent or temporary contracts is stated in full-time equivalents (FTE), with part-time employees included on a pro-rated basis in line with their contractual working hours. The figures do not include apprentices.